Here are some images relating to Materiality of Colour: from Neolithic Earth Colours to Contemporary Interference Pigments, a seminar convened by Antoni Malinowski.
This is pigment timeline discussed by Jo Volley and colleagues from UCL (see note )
Here is an image that uses Indian Yellow, one of the pigments discussed by Ruth Siddall. Traditionally, this was made from the boiled urine of cattle fed exclusively on mango tree leaves.
This is the colour library in Venice, described by Malinowski as one of his favourite places
And this is from a Color-coordinate system from a 13th-century account of rainbows by Hannah Smithson et al. 
 I have turned the image upside down so that the present time is at the top and the lower down you go the further back in time you go. This is to reflect an idea, expressed at the seminar, that the pigments 'arise from the earth'
 Historical European models of the spectrum can be found here or here